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Herzberg Two Factor Theory

What is two factor theory? Before we are discussing about two factor theory itself, it’s better if we know the background first. I was giving this article's title “Herzberg’s two factor theory” doesn’t for no reason. From that title we can suggest that the persons who have an idea about this "two factor theory" was Herzberg, precisely Frederick Irving Herzberg. He was born on 17 April 1923 and died on 19 January 2000.

You may like to see further explanation about this Herzberg two-factor theory through this video:

Uploaded by AgCareers on Dec 2, 2010 

In 1959 Herzberg and his associates were interviewing around two hundred engineer and accountants. Based on that interview, Herzberg convinced that relation between employee and his employment is a basic relation which can determine either that employee can success or failed. By classification of interviewee responses, Herzberg could be concluding about one thing, the answer from respondents when they are feeling happy is totally different with they are unhappy. Of course it was confusing. The respondent’s answers were not consistent and tend to be situational.

From that case, Herzberg divided into two causes. First cause, would lead to job dissatisfaction. This causes were also also familiar as extrinsic factors. Because, when they are feeling unhappy or dissatisfaction, they are usually blame the others either system, work environment or something else. And the second one will lead to job satisfaction also known as intrinsic factor due to when they are feeling happy (satisfaction) they are always linking it to themselves.

Hygiene factors (extrinsic) of Herzberg’s two-factor theory do very little contribution into job satisfaction so he called it dissatisfiers. The presences of this hygiene factors cannot motivating the employee at all, but only can prevent dissatisfaction. But if hygiene factor doesn’t exist, almost sure the employee will be feeling dissatisfaction. The examples of hygiene factor are company's policies and administration, working environment, salary, job security, and employee benefits.

Motivating factors (intrinsic) of Herzberg’s two-factor theory acted as force of job satisfaction. So he called it satisfier. Those motivating factors have positive and longer effect to employee work performance. And also make the employee happy with their jobs, because can supply man’s basic needs of psychological growth. Achievement, recognition for accomplishment, increased responsibility, opportunity for growth and development, and promotion included into motivating factors from Herzberg two-factor theory.

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